IGN: Lord Barnot
Q1. Which wind movement causes aircrafts to enter a downward motion?
A1. Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or wind gradient.
Q2. What causes lightning?
A2. Lightning is produced in clouds. First, small bits of ice above the freezing level of a cloud bump into each other as they move around. All these collisions build up an electrical field. As this field grows large enough, an electric current (i.e. the lightning) occurs between it and a second electrical field (in another cloud, in the air, or on the ground) reducing their charge separation.
Q3. The Richter scale, developed in the 1930s, is a base-10 logarithmic scale. What is the max value on a Richter scale?
A3. The Richter magnitude scale was built on the previous qualitative Mercalli scale and offers a quantifiable measure of an earthquake's size. There is no theoretical upper limit to the Richter magnitude scale, but obviously, in practice, the scale is limited both by the Earth's ability to release energy and by its ability to remain in one piece. The Earth could only generate earthquakes beyond about level 9.5. After that, an asteroid collision could go higher (e.g., the asteroid impact that created the Chicxulub crater has been estimated as causing a magnitude 13 earthquake). A Richter 14 quake would be equivalent to a mars sized body impacting the earth, with the energy released causing the heating and liquification of the entire planet surface. An earthquake with a magnitude around 15 would destroy the planet. A magnetar, a type of neutron star with an extremely powerful magnetic field, can have magnitude 20 quakes that are powerful enough to disturb the surface of the star. Dr. Susan Elizabeth Hough, a seismologist at the United States Geological Survey in Pasadena (California) has suggested that 10 may represent a very approximate upper limit of Richter magnitude scale. If the standard Richter magnitude scale is considered, level 7 should be considered the max value.
Q4. What is a cloudburst and how is it different from rain?
A4. A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation in a short period of time which is capable of creating flood conditions. A precipitation is a cloudburst when the rainfall rate equal to or greater than 100 millimetres (3.9 inches) per hour. Below this value a precipitation is just rain.
Q5. When does a leap year occur?
A5. A leap year occurs every 4 years and contains one additional day (i.e. 29 February). This day is added to the calendar in leap years as a corrective measure, because the Earth does not orbit the sun in precisely 365 days.
Q6. From the photo given above, ascertain the name and describe what's happening in short. Amazing pic, isn't it!
A6. The photo depicts a volcanic lightning (also known as dirty thunderstorm or thunder volcano or volcano eruption lightning), a weather phenomenon that is related to the production of lightning in a volcanic plume, due to the electrification of rising ash particles by magma.
Q7. What is the cause of winds?
A7. Differences in the atmospheric pressure make air to move from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds.
Q8. Even though Sun’s light is white, why does it appear to be yellowish when viewed from Earth?
A8. The Sun may appear Yellow, orange, or red because its short-wavelength components are scattered out by the Earth's atmosphere. Hence only its long-wavelength components (570-750 nm), that are perceived by our visual system as red, yellow, and orange, get through the atmosphere to our eyes.
Q9. Is the Earth’s magnetic north pole and geological (do you mean geographic, don't you? ) north pole at the same location, if not state why it isn’t the same.
A9. No, there is a difference of about 300 kilometers between the Geographic North pole (the intersection point between the Earth and its spin axis which is located in the middle of the Artic Ocean) and Magnetic North pole (the point where the Earth's magnetic field point straight down which is located on Ellesmere Island - Canada). This difference, which is called magnetic declination, is due to perturbations in Earth's rotation and irregularities of the flows deep in the Earth that cause the magnetic north pole to move by a few meters over periods of a few years. Scientists predict that in about 2050 the magnetic declination will be zero.
Q10. Earth is Prolate Spheroid in shape. Yes or No?
A10. No. Earth is not a prolate spheroid in shape but an oblate spheroid.