1. Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or wind gradient.
2. Lightning is produced in clouds. First, small bits of ice above the freezing level of a cloud bump into each other as they move around. All these collisions build up an electrical field. As this field grows large enough, an electric current (i.e. the lightning) occurs between it and a second electrical field (in another cloud, in the air, or on the ground) reducing their charge separation.
3. 7 is the max level on Richter scale. An earthquake that registers 7.0 on the Richter scale releases 2 petajoules of energy.
4. A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation in a short period of time which is capable of creating flood conditions. A precipitation is a cloudburst when the rainfall rate equal to or greater than 100 millimetres (3.9 inches) per hour. Below this value a precipitation is just rain.
5. A leap year occurs every 4 years and contains one additional day (i.e. 29 February). This day is added to the calendar in leap years as a corrective measure, because the Earth does not orbit the sun in precisely 365 days.
6. The photo depicts volcanic lightning (also a dirty thunderstorm or thunder volcano), a weather phenomenon that is related to the production of lightning in a volcanic plume.
7. Differences in the atmospheric pressure make air to move from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds.
8. The Sun may appear yellow, orange, or red because its short-wavelength components are scattered out by the Earth's atmosphere. Hence only its long-wavelength components, that are perceived by our visual system as red, yellow, and orange, get through the thick atmosphere to our eyes.
9. No, there is a difference of about 500 kilometers between the Geographic North and Magnetic North poles. This difference, which is called the magnetic declination, is due to perturbations in Earth's rotation and irregularities of the flows deep in the Earth that cause the magnetic north pole to move by a few meters over periods of a few years. Scientists predict that in about 2050 the magnetic declination will be zero.
10. No. Earth is not a prolate spheroid in shape but an oblate spheroid.
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